Advanced Use Cases
This section will cover some of the more specific use cases for Combine that are not necessarily related to the main results of the analysis.
Fit Diagnostics
If you want to diagnose your limits/fit results, you may first want to look at the HIG PAG standard checks, which are applied to all datacards and can be found here.
If you have already found the Higgs boson but it's an exotic one, instead of computing a limit or significance you might want to extract its cross section by performing a maximumlikelihood fit. Alternatively, you might want to know how compatible your data and your model are, e.g. how strongly your nuisance parameters are constrained, to what extent they are correlated, etc. These general diagnostic tools are contained in the method FitDiagnostics
.
combine M FitDiagnostics datacard.txt
The program will print out the result of two fits. The first one is performed with the signal strength r (or the first POI in the list, in models with multiple POIs) set to zero and a second with floating r. The output ROOT tree will contain the best fit value for r and its uncertainty. You will also get a fitDiagnostics.root
file containing the following objects:
Object  Description 

nuisances_prefit 
RooArgSet containing the prefit values of the nuisance parameters, and their uncertainties from the external constraint terms only 
fit_b 
RooFitResult object containing the outcome of the fit of the data with signal strength set to zero 
fit_s 
RooFitResult object containing the outcome of the fit of the data with floating signal strength 
tree_prefit 
TTree of prefit nuisance parameter values and constraint terms (_In) 
tree_fit_sb 
TTree of fitted nuisance parameter values and constraint terms (_In) with floating signal strength 
tree_fit_b 
TTree of fitted nuisance parameter values and constraint terms (_In) with signal strength set to 0 
by including the option plots
, you will additionally find the following contained in the ROOT file:
Object  Description 

covariance_fit_s 
TH2D Covariance matrix of the parameters in the fit with floating signal strength 
covariance_fit_b 
TH2D Covariance matrix of the parameters in the fit with signal strength set to zero 
category_variable_prefit 
RooPlot plot of the prefit PDFs/templates with the data (or toy if running with t ) overlaid 
category_variable_fit_b 
RooPlot plot of the PDFs/templates from the background only fit with the data (or toy if running with t ) overlaid 
category_variable_fit_s 
RooPlot plot of the PDFs/templates from the signal+background fit with the data (or toy if running with t ) overlaid 
There will be one RooPlot
object per category in the likelihood, and one per variable if using a multidimensional dataset. For each of these additional objects a png file will also be produced.
Info
If you use the option name
, this additional name will be inserted into the file name for this output file.
As well as the values of the constrained nuisance parameters (and their constraints), you will also find branches for the number of "bad" nll calls (which you should check is not too large) and the status of the fit fit_status
. The fit status is computed as follows
fit_status = 100 * hesse_status + 10 * minos_status + minuit_summary_status
The minuit_summary_status
is the usual status from Minuit, details of which can be found here. For the other status values, check these documentation links for the hesse_status
and the minos_status
.
A fit status of 1 indicates that the fit failed (Minuit summary was not 0 or 1) and hence the fit result is not valid.
Fit options
 If you only want to run the signal+background fit, and do not need the output file, you can run with
justFit
. In case you would like to run only the signal+background fit but would like to produce the output file, you should use the optionskipBOnlyFit
instead.  You can use
rMin
andrMax
to set the range of the first POI; a range that is not too large compared with the uncertainties you expect from the fit usually gives more stable and accurate results.  By default, the uncertainties are computed using MINOS for the first POI and HESSE for all other parameters. For the nuisance parameters the uncertainties will therefore be symmetric. You can run MINOS for all parameters using the option
minos all
, or for none of the parameters usingminos none
. Note that running MINOS is slower so you should only consider using it if you think the HESSE uncertainties are not accurate.  If MINOS or HESSE fails to converge, you can try running with
robustFit=1
. This will do a slower, but more robust, likelihood scan, which can be further controlled with the parameterstepSize
(the default value is 0.1, and is relative to the range of the parameter).  The strategy and tolerance when using the
robustFit
option can be set using the optionssetRobustFitAlgo
(default isMinuit2,migrad
),setRobustFitStrategy
(default is 0) andsetRobustFitTolerance
(default is 0.1). If these options are not set, the defaults (set usingcminDefaultMinimizerX
options) will be used. You can also tune the accuracy of the routine used to find the crossing points of the likelihood using the optionsetCrossingTolerance
(the default is set to 0.0001)  If you find the covariance matrix provided by HESSE is not accurate (i.e.
fit_s>Print()
reports this was forced positivedefinite) then a custom HESSEstyle calculation of the covariance matrix can be used instead. This is enabled by runningFitDiagnostics
with therobustHesse 1
option. Please note that the status reported byRooFitResult::Print()
will containcovariance matrix quality: Unknown, matrix was externally provided
when robustHesse is used, this is normal and does not indicate a problem. NB: one feature of the robustHesse algorithm is that if it still cannot calculate a positivedefinite covariance matrix it will try to do so by dropping parameters from the hessian matrix before inverting. If this happens it will be reported in the output to the screen.  For other fitting options see the generic minimizer options section.
Fit parameter uncertainties
If you get a warning message when running FitDiagnostics
that says Unable to determine uncertainties on all fit parameters
. This means the covariance matrix calculated in FitDiagnostics
was not correct.
The most common problem is that the covariance matrix is forced positivedefinite. In this case the constraints on fit parameters as taken from the covariance matrix are incorrect and should not be used. In particular, if you want to make postfit plots of the distribution used in the signal extraction fit and are extracting the uncertainties on the signal and background expectations from the covariance matrix, the resulting values will not reflect the truth if the covariance matrix was incorrect. By default if this happens and you passed the saveWithUncertainties
flag when calling FitDiagnostics
, this option will be ignored as calculating the uncertainties would lead to incorrect results. This behaviour can be overridden by passing ignoreCovWarning
.
Such problems with the covariance matrix can be caused by a number of things, for example:

Parameters being close to their boundaries after the fit.

Strong (anti) correlations between some parameters. A discontinuity in the NLL function or its derivatives at or near the minimum.
If you are aware that your analysis has any of these features you could try resolving these. Setting cminDefaultMinimizerStrategy 0
can also help with this problem.
Pre and postfit nuisance parameters
It is possible to compare prefit and postfit nuisance parameter values with the script diffNuisances.py. Taking as input a fitDiagnostics.root
file, the script will by default print out the parameters that have changed significantly with respect to their initial estimate. For each of those parameters, it will print out the shift in value and the postfit uncertainty, both normalized to the initial (prefit) value. The linear correlation between the parameter and the signal strength will also be printed.
python diffNuisances.py fitDiagnostics.root
The script has several options to toggle the thresholds used to decide whether a parameter has changed significantly, to get the printout of the absolute value of the nuisance parameters, and to get the output in another format for use on a webpage or in a note (the supported formats are html
, latex
, twiki
). To print all of the parameters, use the option all
.
By default, the changes in the nuisance parameter values and uncertainties are given relative to their initial (prefit) values (usually relative to initial values of 0 and 1 for most nuisance types).
The values in the output will be \((\nu\nu_{I})/\sigma_{I}\) if the nuisance has a prefit uncertainty, otherwise they will be \(\nu\nu_{I}\) (for example, a flatParam
has no prefit uncertainty).
The reported uncertainty will be the ratio \(\sigma/\sigma_{I}\)  i.e the ratio of the postfit to the prefit uncertainty. If there is no prefit uncertainty (as for flatParam
nuisances), the postfit uncertainty is shown.
To print the prefit and postfit values and (asymmetric) uncertainties, rather than the ratios, the option abs
can be used.
Info
We recommend that you include the options abs
and all
to get the full information on all of the parameters (including unconstrained nuisance parameters) at least once when checking your datacards.
If instead of the nuisance parameter values, you wish to report the pulls, you can do so using the option pullDef X
, with X
being one of the options listed below. You should note that since the pulls below are only defined when the prefit uncertainty exists, nothing will be reported for parameters that have no prior constraint (except in the case of the unconstPullAsym
choice as described below). You may want to run without this option and all
to get information about those parameters.

relDiffAsymErrs
: This is the same as the default output of the tool, except that only constrained parameters (i.e. where the prefit uncertainty is defined) are reported. The uncertainty is also reported and calculated as \(\sigma/\sigma_{I}\). 
unconstPullAsym
: Report the pull as \(\frac{\nu\nu_{I}}{\sigma}\), where \(\nu_{I}\) and \(\sigma\) are the initial value and postfit uncertainty of that nuisance parameter. The pull defined in this way will have no error bar, but all nuisance parameters will have a result in this case. 
compatAsym
: The pull is defined as \(\frac{\nu\nu_{D}}{\sqrt{\sigma^{2}+\sigma_{D}^{2}}}\), where \(\nu_{D}\) and \(\sigma_{D}\) are calculated as \(\sigma_{D} = (\frac{1}{\sigma^{2}}  \frac{1}{\sigma_{I}^{2}})^{1}\) and \(\nu_{D} = \sigma_{D}(\nu  \frac{\nu_{I}}{\sigma_{I}^{2}})\). In this expression \(\nu_{I}\) and \(\sigma_{I}\) are the initial value and uncertainty of that nuisance parameter. This can be thought of as a compatibility between the initial measurement (prior) and an imagined measurement where only the data (with no constraint on the nuisance parameter) is used to measure the nuisance parameter. There is no error bar associated with this value. 
diffPullAsym
: The pull is defined as \(\frac{\nu\nu_{I}}{\sqrt{\sigma_{I}^{2}\sigma^{2}}}\), where \(\nu_{I}\) and \(\sigma_{I}\) are the prefit value and uncertainty (from L. Demortier and L. Lyons). If the denominator is close to 0 or the postfit uncertainty is larger than the prefit (usually due to some failure in the calculation), the pull is not defined and the result will be reported as0 +/ 999
.
If using pullDef
, the results for all parameters for which the pull can be calculated will be shown (i.e all
will be set to true
), not just those that have moved by some metric.
This script has the option (g outputfile.root
) to produce plots of the fitted values of the nuisance parameters and their postfit, asymmetric uncertainties. Instead, the pulls defined using one of the options above, can be plotted using the option pullDef X
. In addition this will produce a plot showing a comparison between the postfit and prefit (symmetrized) uncertainties on the nuisance parameters.
Info
In the above options, if an asymmetric uncertainty is associated with the nuisance parameter, then the choice of which uncertainty is used in the definition of the pull will depend on the sign of \(\nu\nu_{I}\).
Normalizations
For a certain class of models, like those made from datacards for shapebased analysis, the tool can also compute and save the best fit yields of all processes to the output ROOT file. If this feature is turned on with the option saveNormalizations
, the file will also contain three RooArgSet
objects norm_prefit
, norm_fit_s
, and norm_fit_b
. These each contain one RooConstVar
for each channel xxx
and process yyy
with name xxx/yyy
and value equal to the best fit yield. You can use RooRealVar::getVal
and RooRealVar::getError
to estimate both the postfit (or prefit) values and uncertainties of these normalizations.
The sample pyROOT
macro mlfitNormsToText.py can be used to convert the ROOT file into a text table with four columns: channel, process, yield from the signal+background fit, and yield from the backgroundonly fit. To include the uncertainties in the table, add the option uncertainties
.
Warning
Note that when running with multiple toys, the norm_fit_s
, norm_fit_b
, and norm_prefit
objects will be stored for the last toy dataset generated and so may not be useful to you.
Note that this procedure works only for "extended likelihoods" like the ones used in shapebased analysis, not for counting experiment datacards. You can however convert a counting experiment datacard to an equivalent shapebased one by adding a line shapes * * FAKE
in the datacard after the imax
, jmax
, kmax
lines. Alternatively, you can use combineCards.py countingcard.txt S > shapecard.txt
to do this conversion.
Perbin norms for shape analyses
If you have a shapebased analysis, you can include the option savePredictionsPerToy
. With this option, additional branches will be filled in the three output trees contained in fitDiagnostics.root
.
The normalization values for each toy will be stored in the branches inside the TTrees
named n_exp[_final]_binxxx_proc_yyy. The _final will only be there if there are systematic uncertainties affecting this process.
Additionally, there will be branches that provide the value of the expected bin content for each process, in each channel. These are named n_exp[_final]_binxxx_proc_yyy_i (where _final will only be in the name if there are systematic uncertainties affecting this process) for channel xxx
, process yyy
, bin number i
. In the case of the postfit trees (tree_fit_s/b
), these will be the expectations from the fitted models, while for the prefit tree, they will be the expectation from the generated model (i.e if running toys with t N
and using genNuisances
, they will be randomized for each toy). These can be useful, for example, for calculating correlations/covariances between different bins, in different channels or processes, within the model from toys.
Info
Be aware that for unbinned models, a binning scheme is adopted based on the RooRealVar::getBinning
for the observable defining the shape, if it exists, or Combine will adopt some appropriate binning for each observable.
Plotting
FitDiagnostics
can also produce pre and postfit plots of the model along with the data. They will be stored in the same directory as fitDiagnostics.root
. To obtain these, you have to specify the option plots
, and then optionally specify the names of the signal and background PDFs/templates, e.g. signalPdfNames='ggH*,vbfH*'
and backgroundPdfNames='*DY*,*WW*,*Top*'
(by default, the definitions of signal and background are taken from the datacard). For models with more than 1 observable, a separate projection onto each observable will be produced.
An alternative is to use the option saveShapes
. This will add additional folders in fitDiagnostics.root
for each category, with pre and postfit distributions of the signals and backgrounds as TH1s, and the data as TGraphAsymmErrors
(with Poisson intervals as error bars).
Info
If you want to save postfit shapes at a specific r value, add the options customStartingPoint
and skipSBFit
, and set the r value. The result will appear in shapes_fit_b, as described below.
Three additional folders (shapes_prefit, shapes_fit_sb and shapes_fit_b ) will contain the following distributions:
Object  Description 

data 
TGraphAsymmErrors containing the observed data (or toy data if using t ). The vertical error bars correspond to the 68% interval for a Poisson distribution centered on the observed count (Garwood intervals), following the recipe provided by the CMS Statistics Committee. 
$PROCESS (id <= 0) 
TH1F for each signal process in each channel, named as in the datacard 
$PROCESS (id > 0) 
TH1F for each background process in each channel, named as in the datacard 
total_signal 
TH1F Sum over the signal components 
total_background 
TH1F Sum over the background components 
total 
TH1F Sum over all of the signal and background components 
The above distributions are provided for each channel included in the datacard, in separate subfolders, named as in the datacard: There will be one subfolder per channel.
Warning
The prefit signal is evaluated for r=1
by default, but this can be modified using the option preFitValue
.
The distributions and normalizations are guaranteed to give the correct interpretation:

For shape datacards whose inputs are
TH1
, the histograms/data points will have the bin number as the xaxis and the content of each bin will be a number of events. 
For datacards whose inputs are
RooAbsPdf
/RooDataHist
s, the xaxis will correspond to the observable and the bin content will be the PDF density / events divided by the bin width. This means the absolute number of events in a given bin, i, can be obtained fromh.GetBinContent(i)*h.GetBinWidth(i)
or similar for the data graphs. Note that for unbinned analyses Combine will make a reasonable guess as to an appropriate binning.
Uncertainties on the shapes will be added with the option saveWithUncertainties
. These uncertainties are generated by resampling of the fit covariance matrix, thereby accounting for the full correlation between the parameters of the fit.
Warning
It may be tempting to sum up the uncertainties in each bin (in quadrature) to get the total uncertainty on a process. However, this is (usually) incorrect, as doing so would not account for correlations between the bins. Instead you can refer to the uncertainties which will be added to the postfit normalizations described above.
Additionally, the covariance matrix between bin yields (or yields/binwidths) in each channel will also be saved as a TH2F
named total_covar. If the covariance between all bins across all channels is desired, this can be added using the option saveOverallShapes
. Each folder will now contain additional distributions (and covariance matrices) corresponding to the concatenation of the bins in each channel (and therefore the covaraince between every bin in the analysis). The bin labels should make it clear as to which bin corresponds to which channel.
Toybytoy diagnostics
FitDiagnostics
can also be used to diagnose the fitting procedure in toy experiments to identify potentially problematic nuisance parameters when running the full limits/pvalues. This can be done by adding the option t <num toys>
. The output file, fitDiagnostics.root
the three TTrees
will contain the value of the constraint fitted result in each toy, as a separate entry. It is recommended to use the following options when investigating toys to reduce the running time: toysFrequentist
noErrors
minos none
The results can be plotted using the macro test/plotParametersFromToys.C
$ root l
.L plotParametersFromToys.C+
plotParametersFromToys("fitDiagnosticsToys.root","fitDiagnosticsData.root","workspace.root","r<0")
The first argument is the name of the output file from running with toys, and the second and third (optional) arguments are the name of the file containing the result from a fit to the data and the workspace (created from text2workspace.py
). The fourth argument can be used to specify a cut string applied to one of the branches in the tree, which can be used to correlate strange behaviour with specific conditions. The output will be 2 pdf files (tree_fit_(s)b.pdf
) and 2 ROOT files (tree_fit_(s)b.root
) containing canvases of the fit results of the tool. For details on the output plots, consult AN2012/317.
Scaling constraints
It possible to scale the constraints on the nuisance parameters when converting the datacard to a workspace (see the section on physics models) with text2workspace.py
. This can be useful for projection studies of the analysis to higher luminosities or with different assumptions about the sizes of certain systematics without changing the datacard by hand.
We consider two kinds of scaling;
 A constant scaling factor to scale the constraints
 A functional scale factor that depends on some other parameters in the workspace, eg a luminosity scaling parameter (as a
rateParam
affecting all processes).
In both cases these scalings can be introduced by adding some extra options at the text2workspace.py
step.
To add a constant scaling factor we use the option Xrescalenuisance
, eg
text2workspace.py datacard.txt Xrescalenuisance '[some regular expression]' 0.5
will create the workspace in which every nuisance parameter whose name matches the specified regular expression will have the width of the gaussian constraint scaled by a factor 0.5.
Multiple Xrescalenuisance
options can be specified to set different scalings for different nuisances (note that you actually have to write Xrescalenuisance
each time as in Xrescalenuisance 'theory.*' 0.5 Xrescalenuisance 'exp.*' 0.1
).
To add a functional scaling factor we use the option Xnuisancefunction
, which works in a similar way. Instead of a constant value you should specify a RooFit
factory expression.
A typical case would be scaling by \(1/\sqrt{L}\), where \(L\) is a luminosity scale factor. For example, assuming there is some parameter in the datacard/workspace called lumiscale
,
text2workspace.py datacard.txt Xnuisancefunction '[some regular expression]' 'expr::lumisyst("1/sqrt(@0)",lumiscale[1])'
This factory syntax is flexible, but for our use case the typical format will be: expr::[function name]("[formula]", [arg0], [arg1], ...)
. The arg0
, arg1
... are represented in the formula by @0
, @1
,... placeholders.
Warning
We are playing a slight trick here with the lumiscale
parameter. At the point at which text2workspace.py
is building these scaling terms the lumiscale
for the rateParam
has not yet been created. By writing lumiscale[1]
we are telling RooFit to create this variable with an initial value of 1, and then later this will be reused by the rateParam
creation.
A similar option, Xnuisancegroupfunction
, can be used to scale whole groups of nuisances (see groups of nuisances). Instead of a regular expression just give the group name instead,
text2workspace.py datacard.txt Xnuisancegroupfunction [group name] 'expr::lumisyst("1/sqrt(@0)",lumiscale[1])'
Nuisance parameter impacts
The impact of a nuisance parameter (NP) θ on a parameter of interest (POI) μ is defined as the shift Δμ that is induced as θ is fixed and brought to its +1σ or −1σ postfit values, with all other parameters profiled as normal (see JHEP 01 (2015) 069 for a description of this method).
This is effectively a measure of the correlation between the NP and the POI, and is useful for determining which NPs have the largest effect on the POI uncertainty.
It is possible to use the FitDiagnostics
method of Combine with the option algo impact P parameter
to calculate the impact of a particular nuisance parameter on the parameter(s) of interest. We will use the combineTool.py
script to automate the fits (see the combineTool
section to check out the tool.
We will use an example workspace from the \(H\rightarrow\tau\tau\) datacard,
$ cp HiggsAnalysis/CombinedLimit/data/tutorials/htt/125/htt_tt.txt .
$ text2workspace.py htt_tt.txt m 125
Calculating the impacts is done in a few stages. First we just fit for each POI, using the doInitialFit
option with combineTool.py
, and adding the robustFit 1
option that will be passed through to Combine,
combineTool.py M Impacts d htt_tt.root m 125 doInitialFit robustFit 1
Have a look at the options as for likelihood scans when using robustFit 1
.
Next we perform a similar scan for each nuisance parameter with the doFits
options,
combineTool.py M Impacts d htt_tt.root m 125 robustFit 1 doFits
Note that this will run approximately 60 scans, and to speed things up the option parallel X
can be given to run X Combine jobs simultaneously. The batch and grid submission methods described in the combineTool for job submission section can also be used.
Once all jobs are completed, the output can be collected and written into a json file:
combineTool.py M Impacts d htt_tt.root m 125 o impacts.json
A plot summarizing the nuisance parameter values and impacts can be made with plotImpacts.py
,
plotImpacts.py i impacts.json o impacts
The first page of the output is shown below. Note that in these figures, the nuisance parameters are labelled as \(\theta\) instead of \(\nu\).
The direction of the +1σ and 1σ impacts (i.e. when the NP is moved to its +1σ or 1σ values) on the POI indicates whether the parameter is correlated or anticorrelated with it.
For models with multiple POIs, the Combine option redefineSignalPOIs X,Y,Z...
should be specified in all three of the combineTool.py M Impacts [...]
steps above. The final step will produce the impacts.json
file which will contain the impacts for all the specified POIs. In the plotImpacts.py
script, a particular POI can be specified with POI X
.
Warning
The plot also shows the best fit value of the POI at the top and its uncertainty. You may wish to allow the range to go negative (i.e using setParameterRanges
or rMin
) to avoid getting onesided impacts!
This script also accepts an optional jsonfile argument with t
, which can be used to provide a dictionary for renaming parameters. A simple example would be to create a file rename.json
,
{
"r" : "#mu"
}
that will rename the POI label on the plot.
Info
Since combineTool
accepts the usual options for combine you can also generate the impacts on an Asimov or toy dataset.
The left panel in the summary plot shows the value of \((\nu\nu_{0})/\Delta_{\nu}\) where \(\nu\) and \(\nu_{0}\) are the post and prefit values of the nuisance parameter and \(\Delta_{\nu}\) is the prefit uncertainty. The asymmetric error bars show the postfit uncertainty divided by the prefit uncertainty meaning that parameters with error bars smaller than \(\pm 1\) are constrained in the fit. The pull will additionally be shown. As with the diffNuisances.py
script, the option pullDef
can be used (to modify the definition of the pull that is shown).
Breakdown of uncertainties
Often you will want to report the breakdown of your total (systematic) uncertainty on a measured parameter due to one or more groups of nuisance parameters. For example, these groups could be theory uncertainties, trigger uncertainties, ... The prodecude to do this in Combine is to sequentially freeze groups of nuisance parameters and subtract (in quadrature) from the total uncertainty. Below are the steps to do so. We will use the data/tutorials/htt/125/htt_tt.txt
datacard for this.
 Add groups to the datacard to group nuisance parameters. Nuisance parameters not in groups will be considered as "rest" in the later steps. The lines should look like the following and you should add them to the end of the datacard
theory group = QCDscale_VH QCDscale_ggH1in QCDscale_ggH2in QCDscale_qqH UEPS pdf_gg pdf_qqbar
calibration group = CMS_scale_j_8TeV CMS_scale_t_tautau_8TeV CMS_htt_scale_met_8TeV
efficiency group = CMS_eff_b_8TeV CMS_eff_t_tt_8TeV CMS_fake_b_8TeV

Create the workspace with
text2workspace.py data/tutorials/htt/125/htt_tt.txt m 125
. 
Run a fit with all nuisance parameters floating and store the workspace in an output file 
combine data/tutorials/htt/125/htt_tt.root M MultiDimFit saveWorkspace n htt.postfit

Run a scan from the postfit workspace
combine higgsCombinehtt.postfit.MultiDimFit.mH120.root M MultiDimFit n htt.total algo grid snapshotName MultiDimFit setParameterRanges r=0,4
 Run additional scans using the postfit workspace, sequentially adding another group to the list of groups to freeze
combine higgsCombinehtt.postfit.MultiDimFit.mH120.root M MultiDimFit algo grid snapshotName MultiDimFit setParameterRanges r=0,4 freezeNuisanceGroups theory n htt.freeze_theory
combine higgsCombinehtt.postfit.MultiDimFit.mH120.root M MultiDimFit algo grid snapshotName MultiDimFit setParameterRanges r=0,4 freezeNuisanceGroups theory,calibration n htt.freeze_theory_calibration
combine higgsCombinehtt.postfit.MultiDimFit.mH120.root M MultiDimFit algo grid snapshotName MultiDimFit setParameterRanges r=0,4 freezeNuisanceGroups theory,calibration,efficiency n htt.freeze_theory_calibration_efficiency
 Run one last scan freezing all of the constrained nuisance parameters (this represents the statistical uncertainty only).
combine higgsCombinehtt.postfit.MultiDimFit.mH120.root M MultiDimFit algo grid snapshotName MultiDimFit setParameterRanges r=0,4 freezeParameters allConstrainedNuisances n htt.freeze_all
 Use the
combineTool
scriptplot1DScan.py
to report the breakdown of uncertainties.
plot1DScan.py higgsCombinehtt.total.MultiDimFit.mH120.root mainlabel "Total Uncert." others higgsCombinehtt.freeze_theory.MultiDimFit.mH120.root:"freeze theory":4 higgsCombinehtt.freeze_theory_calibration.MultiDimFit.mH120.root:"freeze theory+calibration":7 higgsCombinehtt.freeze_theory_calibration_efficiency.MultiDimFit.mH120.root:"freeze theory+calibration+efficiency":2 higgsCombinehtt.freeze_all.MultiDimFit.mH120.root:"stat only":6 output breakdown ymax 10 ycut 40 breakdown "theory,calibration,efficiency,rest,stat"
The final step calculates the contribution of each group of nuisance parameters as the subtraction in quadrature of each scan from the previous one. This procedure guarantees that the sum in quadrature of the individual components is the same as the total uncertainty.
The plot below is produced,
Warning
While the above procedure is guaranteed the have the effect that the sum in quadrature of the breakdown will equal the total uncertainty, the order in which you freeze the groups can make a difference due to correlations induced by the fit. You should check if the answers change significantly if changing the order and we recommend you start with the largest group (in terms of overall contribution to the uncertainty) first, working down the list in order of the size of the contribution.
Channel Masking
The Combine tool has a number of features for diagnostics and plotting results of fits. It can often be useful to turn off particular channels in a combined analysis to see how constraints/shifts in parameter values can vary. It can also be helpful to plot the postfit shapes and uncertainties of a particular channel (for example a signal region) without including the constraints from the data in that region.
This can in some cases be achieved by removing a specific datacard when running combineCards.py
. However, when doing so, the information of particular nuisance parameters and PDFs in that region will be lost. Instead, it is possible to mask that channel from the likelihood. This is achieved at the text2Workspace
step using the option channelmasks
.
Example: removing constraints from the signal region
We will take the control region example from the rate parameters tutorial from data/tutorials/rate_params/.
The first step is to combine the cards combineCards.py signal=signal_region.txt dimuon=dimuon_control_region.txt singlemuon=singlemuon_control_region.txt > datacard.txt
Note that we use the directive CHANNELNAME=CHANNEL_DATACARD.txt
so that the names of the channels are under our control and easier to interpret. Next, we make a workspace and tell Combine to create the parameters used to mask channels
text2workspace.py datacard.txt channelmasks
Now we will try to do a fit ignoring the signal region. We can turn off the signal region by setting the corresponding channel mask parameter to 1: setParameters mask_signal=1
. Note that text2workspace
has created a masking parameter for every channel with the naming scheme mask_CHANNELNAME. By default, every parameter is set to 0 so that the channel is unmasked by default.
combine datacard.root M FitDiagnostics saveShapes saveWithUncertainties setParameters mask_signal=1
Warning
There will be a lot of warnings from Combine. These are safe to ignore as they are due to the s+b fit not converging. This is expected as the free signal parameter cannot be constrained because the data in the signal region is being ignored.
We can compare the postfit background and uncertainties with and without the signal region included by rerunning with setParameters mask_signal=0
(or just removing that option completely). Below is a comparison of the background in the signal region with and without masking the data in the signal region. We take these from the shapes folder
shapes_fit_b/signal/total_background in the fitDiagnostics.root
output.
Clearly the background shape is different and much less constrained without including the signal region, as expected. Channel masking can be used with any method in Combine.
RooMultiPdf conventional bias studies
Several analyses in CMS use a functional form to describe the background. This functional form is fit to the data. Often however, there is some uncertainty associated with the choice of which background function to use, and this choice will impact the fit results. It is therefore often the case that in these analyses, a bias study is performed. This study will give an indication of the size of the potential bias in the result, given a certain choice of functional form. These studies can be conducted using Combine.
Below is an example script that will produce a workspace based on a simplified Higgs to diphoton (Hgg) analysis with a single category. It will produce the data and PDFs necessary for this example, and you can use it as a basis to construct your own studies.
void makeRooMultiPdfWorkspace(){
// Load the combine Library
gSystem>Load("libHiggsAnalysisCombinedLimit.so");
// mass variable
RooRealVar mass("CMS_hgg_mass","m_{#gamma#gamma}",120,100,180);
// create 3 background pdfs
// 1. exponential
RooRealVar expo_1("expo_1","slope of exponential",0.02,0.1,0.0001);
RooExponential exponential("exponential","exponential pdf",mass,expo_1);
// 2. polynomial with 2 parameters
RooRealVar poly_1("poly_1","T1 of chebychev polynomial",0,3,3);
RooRealVar poly_2("poly_2","T2 of chebychev polynomial",0,3,3);
RooChebychev polynomial("polynomial","polynomial pdf",mass,RooArgList(poly_1,poly_2));
// 3. A power law function
RooRealVar pow_1("pow_1","exponent of power law",3,6,0.0001);
RooGenericPdf powerlaw("powerlaw","TMath::Power(@0,@1)",RooArgList(mass,pow_1));
// Generate some data (lets use the power lay function for it)
// Here we are using unbinned data, but binning the data is also fine
RooDataSet *data = powerlaw.generate(mass,RooFit::NumEvents(1000));
// First we fit the pdfs to the data (gives us a sensible starting value of parameters for, e.g  blind limits)
exponential.fitTo(*data); // index 0
polynomial.fitTo(*data); // index 1
powerlaw.fitTo(*data); // index 2
// Make a plot (data is a toy dataset)
RooPlot *plot = mass.frame(); data>plotOn(plot);
exponential.plotOn(plot,RooFit::LineColor(kGreen));
polynomial.plotOn(plot,RooFit::LineColor(kBlue));
powerlaw.plotOn(plot,RooFit::LineColor(kRed));
plot>SetTitle("PDF fits to toy data");
plot>Draw();
// Make a RooCategory object. This will control which of the pdfs is "active"
RooCategory cat("pdf_index","Index of Pdf which is active");
// Make a RooMultiPdf object. The order of the pdfs will be the order of their index, ie for below
// 0 == exponential
// 1 == polynomial
// 2 == powerlaw
RooArgList mypdfs;
mypdfs.add(exponential);
mypdfs.add(polynomial);
mypdfs.add(powerlaw);
RooMultiPdf multipdf("roomultipdf","All Pdfs",cat,mypdfs);
// By default the multipdf will tell combine to add 0.5 to the nll for each parameter (this is the penalty for the discrete profiling method)
// It can be changed with
// multipdf.setCorrectionFactor(penalty)
// For biasstudies, this isn;t relevant however, so lets just leave the default
// As usual make an extended term for the background with _norm for freely floating yield
RooRealVar norm("roomultipdf_norm","Number of background events",1000,0,10000);
// We will also produce a signal model for the bias studies
RooRealVar sigma("sigma","sigma",1.2); sigma.setConstant(true);
RooRealVar MH("MH","MH",125); MH.setConstant(true);
RooGaussian signal("signal","signal",mass,MH,sigma);
// Save to a new workspace
TFile *fout = new TFile("workspace.root","RECREATE");
RooWorkspace wout("workspace","workspace");
data>SetName("data");
wout.import(*data);
wout.import(cat);
wout.import(norm);
wout.import(multipdf);
wout.import(signal);
wout.Print();
wout.Write();
}
The signal is modelled as a simple Gaussian with a width approximately that of the diphoton resolution. For the background there is a choice of 3 functions: an exponential, a powerlaw, and a 2nd order polynomial. This choice is accessible within Combine through the use of the RooMultiPdf object, which can switch between the functions by setting their associated indices (herein called pdf_index). This (as with all parameters in Combine) can be set via the setParameters
option.
To assess the bias, one can throw toys using one function and fit with another. To do this, only a single datacard is needed: hgg_toy_datacard.txt.
The bias studies are performed in two stages. The first is to generate toys using one of the functions, under some value of the signal strength r (or \(\mu\)). This can be repeated for several values of r and also at different masses, but in this example the Higgs boson mass is fixed to 125 GeV.
combine hgg_toy_datacard.txt M GenerateOnly setParameters pdf_index=0 toysFrequentist t 100 expectSignal 1 saveToys m 125 freezeParameters pdf_index
Warning
It is important to freeze pdf_index
, otherwise Combine will try to iterate over the index in the frequentist fit.
Now we have 100 toys which, by setting pdf_index=0
, sets the background PDF to the exponential function. This means we assume that the exponential is the true function. Note that the option toysFrequentist
is added; this first performs a fit of the PDF, assuming a signal strength of 1, to the data before generating the toys. This is the most obvious choice as to where to throw the toys from.
The next step is to fit the toys under a different background PDF hypothesis. This time we set the pdf_index
to 1, which selects the powerlaw, and run fits with the FitDiagnostics
method, again freezing pdf_index
.
combine hgg_toy_datacard.txt M FitDiagnostics setParameters pdf_index=1 toysFile higgsCombineTest.GenerateOnly.mH125.123456.root t 100 rMin 10 rMax 10 freezeParameters pdf_index cminDefaultMinimizerStrategy=0
Note how we add the option cminDefaultMinimizerStrategy=0
. This is because we do not need the Hessian, as FitDiagnostics
will run MINOS to get the uncertainty on r
. If we do not do this, Minuit will think the fit failed as we have parameters (those not attached to the current PDF) for which the likelihood is flat.
Warning
You may get warnings about nonaccurate errors such as [WARNING]: Unable to determine uncertainties on all fit parameters in bonly fit
 These can be ignored since they are related to the free parameters of the background PDFs which are not active.
In the output file fitDiagnostics.root
there is a tree that contains the best fit results under the signal+background hypothesis. One measure of the bias is the pull defined as the difference between the measured value of \(\mu\) and the generated value (here we used 1) relative to the uncertainty on \(\mu\). The pull distribution can be drawn and the mean provides an estimate of the pull. In this example, we are averaging the positive and negative uncertainties, but we could do something smarter if the uncertainties are very asymmetric.
root l fitDiagnostics.root
tree_fit_sb>Draw("(r1)/(0.5*(rHiErr+rLoErr))>>h(20,5,5)")
h>Fit("gaus")
From the fitted Gaussian, we see the mean is at 1.29, which would indicate a bias of 129% of the uncertainty on mu from choosing the polynomial when the true function is an exponential.
Discrete profiling
If the discrete
nuisance is left floating, it will be profiled by looping through the possible index values and finding the PDF that gives the best fit. This allows for the discrete profiling method to be applied for any method which involves a profiled likelihood (frequentist methods).
Warning
You should be careful since MINOS knows nothing about the discrete nuisances and hence estimations of uncertainties will be incorrect via MINOS. Instead, uncertainties from scans and limits will correctly account for these nuisance parameters. Currently the Bayesian methods will not properly treat the nuisance parameters, so some care should be taken when interpreting Bayesian results.
As an example, we can peform a likelihood scan as a function of the Higgs boson signal strength in the toy Hgg datacard. By leaving the object pdf_index
nonconstant, at each point in the likelihood scan, the PDFs will be iterated over and the one that gives the lowest 2 times loglikelihood, including the correction factor \(c\) (as defined in the paper linked above) will be stored in the output tree. We can also check the scan when we fix at each PDF individually to check that the envelope is achieved. For this, you will need to include the option Xrtd REMOVE_CONSTANT_ZERO_POINT=1
. In this way, we can take a look at the absolute value to compare the curves, if we also include saveNLL
.
For example for a full scan, you can run
combine M MultiDimFit d hgg_toy_datacard.txt algo grid setParameterRanges r=1,3 cminDefaultMinimizerStrategy 0 saveNLL n Envelope m 125 setParameters myIndex=1 Xrtd REMOVE_CONSTANT_ZERO_POINT=1
and for the individual pdf_index
set to X
,
combine M MultiDimFit d hgg_toy_datacard.txt algo grid setParameterRanges r=1,3 cminDefaultMinimizerStrategy 0 saveNLL freezeParameters pdf_index setParameters pdf_index=X n fixed_pdf_X m 125 Xrtd REMOVE_CONSTANT_ZERO_POINT=1
for X=0,1,2
You can then plot the value of 2*(deltaNLL+nll+nll0)
to plot the absolute value of (twice) the negative loglikelihood, including the correction term for extra parameters in the different PDFs.
The above output will produce the following scans.
As expected, the curve obtained by allowing the pdf_index
to float (labelled "Envelope") picks out the best function (maximum corrected likelihood) for each value of the signal strength.
In general, the performance of Combine can be improved when using the discrete profiling method by including the option Xrtd MINIMIZER_freezeDisassociatedParams
. This will stop parameters not associated to the current PDF from floating in the fits. Additionally, you can include the following options:
Xrtd MINIMIZER_multiMin_hideConstants
: hide the constant terms in the likelihood when recreating the minimizerXrtd MINIMIZER_multiMin_maskConstraints
: hide the constraint terms during the discrete minimization processXrtd MINIMIZER_multiMin_maskChannels=<choice>
mask the channels that are not needed from the NLL:<choice> 1
: keeps unmasked all channels that are participating in the discrete minimization.<choice> 2
: keeps unmasked only the channel whose index is being scanned at the moment.
You may want to check with the Combine development team if you are using these options, as they are somewhat for expert use.
RooSplineND multidimensional splines
RooSplineND can be used to interpolate from a tree of points to produce a continuous function in Ndimensions. This function can then be used as input to workspaces allowing for parametric rates/crosssections/efficiencies. It can also be used to upscale the resolution of likelihood scans (i.e like those produced from Combine) to produce smooth contours.
The spline makes use of a radial basis decomposition to produce a continous \(N \to 1\) map (function) from \(M\) provided sample points. The function of the \(N\) variables \(\vec{x}\) is assumed to be of the form,
where \(\phi(\vec{z}) = e^{\frac{\vec{z}}{\epsilon^{2}}}\). The distance \(.\) between two points is given by,
if the option rescale=false
and,
if the option rescale=true
. Given the sample points, it is possible to determine the weights \(w_{i}\) as the solution of the set of equations,
The solution is obtained using the eigen
c++ package.
The typical constructor of the object is as follows;
RooSplineND(const char *name, const char *title, RooArgList &vars, TTree *tree, const char* fName="f", double eps=3., bool rescale=false, std::string cutstring="" ) ;
where the arguments are:
vars
: ARooArgList
ofRooRealVars
representing the \(N\) dimensions of the spline. The length of this list determines the dimension \(N\) of the spline.tree
: a TTree pointer where each entry represents a sample point used to construct the spline. The branch names must correspond to the names of the variables invars
.fName
: is a string representing the name of the branch to interpret as the target function \(f\).eps
: is the value of \(\epsilon\) and represents the width of the basis functions \(\phi\).rescale
: is an option to rescale the input sample points so that each variable has roughly the same range (see above in the definition of \(.\)).cutstring
: a string to remove sample points from the tree. Can be any typical cut string (eg "var1>10 && var2<3").
The object can be treated as a RooAbsArg
; its value for the current values of the parameters is obtained as usual by using the getVal()
method.
Warning
You should not include more variable branches than contained in vars
in the tree, as the spline will interpret them as additional sample points. You will get a warning if there are two nearby points in the input samples and this will cause a failure in determining the weights. If you cannot create a reduced tree, you can remove entries by using the cutstring
.
The following script is an example that produces a 2D spline (N=2
) from a set of 400 points (M=400
) generated from a function.
Show script
void splinend(){
// library containing the RooSplineND
gSystem>Load("libHiggsAnalysisCombinedLimit.so");
TTree *tree = new TTree("tree_vals","tree_vals");
float xb,yb,fb;
tree>Branch("f",&fb,"f/F");
tree>Branch("x",&xb,"x/F");
tree>Branch("y",&yb,"y/F");
TRandom3 *r = new TRandom3();
int nentries = 20; // just use a regular grid of 20x20=400 points
double xmin = 3.2;
double xmax = 3.2;
double ymin = 3.2;
double ymax = 3.2;
for (int n=0;n<nentries;n++){
for (int k=0;k<nentries;k++){
xb=xmin+n*((xmaxxmin)/nentries);
yb=ymin+k*((ymaxymin)/nentries);
// Gaussian * cosine function radial in "F(x^2+y^2)"
double R = (xb*xb)+(yb*yb);
fb = 0.1*TMath::Exp(1*(R)/9)*TMath::Cos(2.5*TMath::Sqrt(R));
tree>Fill();
}
}
// 2D graph of points in tree
TGraph2D *p0 = new TGraph2D();
p0>SetMarkerSize(0.8);
p0>SetMarkerStyle(20);
int c0=0;
for (int p=0;p<tree>GetEntries();p++){
tree>GetEntry(p);
p0>SetPoint(c0,xb,yb,fb);
c0++;
}
//  THIS IS WHERE WE BUILD THE SPLINE  //
// Create 2 Realvars, one for each of the parameters of the spline
// The variables MUST be named the same as the corresponding branches in the tree
RooRealVar x("x","x",0.1,xmin,xmax);
RooRealVar y("y","y",0.1,ymin,ymax);
// And the spline  arguments are
// Required > name, title, arglist of dependants, input tree,
// Optional > function branch name, interpolation width (tunable parameter), rescale Axis bool, cutstring
// The tunable parameter gives the radial basis a "width", over which the interpolation will be effectively taken
// the reascale Axis bool (if true) will first try to rescale the points so that they are of order 1 in range
// This can be helpful if for example one dimension is in much larger units than another.
// The cutstring is just a ROOT string which can be used to apply cuts to the tree in case only a subset of the points should be used
RooArgList args(x,y);
RooSplineND *spline = new RooSplineND("spline","spline",args,tree,"f",1,true);
//  //
//TGraph *gr = spline>getGraph("x",0.1); // Return 1D graph. Will be a slice of the spline for fixed y generated at steps of 0.1
// Plot the 2D spline
TGraph2D *gr = new TGraph2D();
int pt = 0;
for (double xx=xmin;xx<xmax;xx+=0.1){
for (double yy=xmin;yy<ymax;yy+=0.1){
x.setVal(xx);
y.setVal(yy);
gr>SetPoint(pt,xx,yy,spline>getVal());
pt++;
}
}
gr>SetTitle("");
gr>SetLineColor(1);
//p0>SetTitle("0.1 exp((x{^2}+y{^2})/9) #times Cos(2.5#sqrt{x^{2}+y^{2}})");
gr>Draw("surf");
gr>GetXaxis()>SetTitle("x");
gr>GetYaxis()>SetTitle("y");
p0>Draw("Pcolsame");
//p0>Draw("surfsame");
TLegend *leg = new TLegend(0.2,0.82,0.82,0.98);
leg>SetFillColor(0);
leg>AddEntry(p0,"0.1 exp((x{^2}+y{^2})/9) #times Cos(2.5#sqrt{x^{2}+y^{2}})","p");
leg>AddEntry(gr,"RooSplineND (N=2) interpolation","L");
leg>Draw();
}
Running the script will produce the following plot. The plot shows the sampled points and the spline produced from them.
RooParametricHist gammaN for shapes
Currently, there is no straightforward implementation of using perbin gmNlike uncertainties with shape (histogram) analyses. Instead, it is possible to tie control regions (written as datacards) with the signal region using three methods.
For analyses that take the normalization of some process from a control region, it is possible to use either lnU or rateParam directives to float the normalization in a correlated way of some process between two regions. Instead if each bin is intended to be determined via a control region, one can use a number of RooFit
histogram PDFs/functions to accomplish this. The example below shows a simple implementation of a RooParametricHist to achieve this.
Copy the script below into a file called examplews.C
and create the input workspace using root l examplews.C
...
Show script
void examplews(){
// As usual, load the combine library to get access to the RooParametricHist
gSystem>Load("libHiggsAnalysisCombinedLimit.so");
// Output file and workspace
TFile *fOut = new TFile("param_ws.root","RECREATE");
RooWorkspace wspace("wspace","wspace");
// better to create the bins rather than use the "nbins,min,max" to avoid spurious warning about adding bins with different
// ranges in combine  see https://rootforum.cern.ch/t/attempttodividehistogramswithdifferentbinlimits/17624/3 for why!
const int nbins = 4;
double xmin=200.;
double xmax=1000.;
double xbins[5] = {200.,400.,600.,800.,1000.};
// A search in a MET tail, define MET as our variable
RooRealVar met("met","E_{T}^{miss}",200,xmin,xmax);
RooArgList vars(met);
//  SIGNAL REGION //
// Make a dataset, this will be just four bins in MET.
// its easiest to make this from a histogram. Set the contents to "somehting"
TH1F data_th1("data_obs_SR","Data observed in signal region",nbins,xbins);
data_th1.SetBinContent(1,100);
data_th1.SetBinContent(2,50);
data_th1.SetBinContent(3,25);
data_th1.SetBinContent(4,10);
RooDataHist data_hist("data_obs_SR","Data observed",vars,&data_th1);
wspace.import(data_hist);
// In the signal region, our background process will be freely floating,
// Create one parameter per bin representing the yield. (note of course we can have multiple processes like this)
RooRealVar bin1("bkg_SR_bin1","Background yield in signal region, bin 1",100,0,500);
RooRealVar bin2("bkg_SR_bin2","Background yield in signal region, bin 2",50,0,500);
RooRealVar bin3("bkg_SR_bin3","Background yield in signal region, bin 3",25,0,500);
RooRealVar bin4("bkg_SR_bin4","Background yield in signal region, bin 4",10,0,500);
RooArgList bkg_SR_bins;
bkg_SR_bins.add(bin1);
bkg_SR_bins.add(bin2);
bkg_SR_bins.add(bin3);
bkg_SR_bins.add(bin4);
// Create a RooParametericHist which contains those yields, last argument is just for the binning,
// can use the data TH1 for that
RooParametricHist p_bkg("bkg_SR", "Background PDF in signal region",met,bkg_SR_bins,data_th1);
// Always include a _norm term which should be the sum of the yields (thats how combine likes to play with pdfs)
RooAddition p_bkg_norm("bkg_SR_norm","Total Number of events from background in signal region",bkg_SR_bins);
// Every signal region needs a signal
TH1F signal_th1("signal_SR","Signal expected in signal region",nbins,xbins);
signal_th1.SetBinContent(1,1);
signal_th1.SetBinContent(2,2);
signal_th1.SetBinContent(3,3);
signal_th1.SetBinContent(4,8);
RooDataHist signal_hist("signal","Data observed",vars,&signal_th1);
wspace.import(signal_hist);
// //
//  CONTROL REGION //
TH1F data_CRth1("data_obs_CR","Data observed in control region",nbins,xbins);
data_CRth1.SetBinContent(1,200);
data_CRth1.SetBinContent(2,100);
data_CRth1.SetBinContent(3,50);
data_CRth1.SetBinContent(4,20);
RooDataHist data_CRhist("data_obs_CR","Data observed",vars,&data_CRth1);
wspace.import(data_CRhist);
// This time, the background process will be dependent on the yields of the background in the signal region.
// The transfer factor TF must account for acceptance/efficiency etc differences in the signal to control
// In this example lets assume the control region is populated by the same process decaying to clean daughters with 2xBR
// compared to the signal region
// NB You could have a different transfer factor for each bin represented by a completely different RooRealVar
// We can imagine that the transfer factor could be associated with some uncertainty  lets say a 1% uncertainty due to efficiency and 2% due to acceptance.
// We need to make these nuisance parameters ourselves and give them a nominal value of 0
RooRealVar efficiency("efficiency", "efficiency nuisance parameter",0);
RooRealVar acceptance("acceptance", "acceptance nuisance parameter",0);
// We would need to make the transfer factor a function of those too. Here we've assumed Lognormal effects (i.e the same as putting lnN in the CR datacard)
// but note that we could use any function which could be used to parameterise the effect  eg if the systematic is due to some alternate template, we could
// use polynomials for example.
RooFormulaVar TF("TF","Trasnfer factor","2*TMath::Power(1.01,@0)*TMath::Power(1.02,@1)",RooArgList(efficiency,acceptance) );
// Finally, we need to make each bin of the background in the control region a function of the background in the signal and the transfer factor
// N_CR = N_SR x TF
RooFormulaVar CRbin1("bkg_CR_bin1","Background yield in control region, bin 1","@0*@1",RooArgList(TF,bin1));
RooFormulaVar CRbin2("bkg_CR_bin2","Background yield in control region, bin 2","@0*@1",RooArgList(TF,bin2));
RooFormulaVar CRbin3("bkg_CR_bin3","Background yield in control region, bin 3","@0*@1",RooArgList(TF,bin3));
RooFormulaVar CRbin4("bkg_CR_bin4","Background yield in control region, bin 4","@0*@1",RooArgList(TF,bin4));
RooArgList bkg_CR_bins;
bkg_CR_bins.add(CRbin1);
bkg_CR_bins.add(CRbin2);
bkg_CR_bins.add(CRbin3);
bkg_CR_bins.add(CRbin4);
RooParametricHist p_CRbkg("bkg_CR", "Background PDF in control region",met,bkg_CR_bins,data_th1);
RooAddition p_CRbkg_norm("bkg_CR_norm","Total Number of events from background in control region",bkg_CR_bins);
// //
// we can also use the standard interpolation from combine by providing alternative shapes (as RooDataHists)
// here we're adding two of them (JES and ISR)
TH1F background_up("tbkg_CR_JESUp","",nbins,xbins);
background_up.SetBinContent(1,CRbin1.getVal()*1.01);
background_up.SetBinContent(2,CRbin2.getVal()*1.02);
background_up.SetBinContent(3,CRbin3.getVal()*1.03);
background_up.SetBinContent(4,CRbin4.getVal()*1.04);
RooDataHist bkg_CRhist_sysUp("bkg_CR_JESUp","Bkg sys up",vars,&background_up);
wspace.import(bkg_CRhist_sysUp);
TH1F background_down("bkg_CR_JESDown","",nbins,xbins);
background_down.SetBinContent(1,CRbin1.getVal()*0.90);
background_down.SetBinContent(2,CRbin2.getVal()*0.98);
background_down.SetBinContent(3,CRbin3.getVal()*0.97);
background_down.SetBinContent(4,CRbin4.getVal()*0.96);
RooDataHist bkg_CRhist_sysDown("bkg_CR_JESDown","Bkg sys down",vars,&background_down);
wspace.import(bkg_CRhist_sysDown);
TH1F background_2up("tbkg_CR_ISRUp","",nbins,xbins);
background_2up.SetBinContent(1,CRbin1.getVal()*0.85);
background_2up.SetBinContent(2,CRbin2.getVal()*0.9);
background_2up.SetBinContent(3,CRbin3.getVal()*0.95);
background_2up.SetBinContent(4,CRbin4.getVal()*0.99);
RooDataHist bkg_CRhist_sys2Up("bkg_CR_ISRUp","Bkg sys 2up",vars,&background_2up);
wspace.import(bkg_CRhist_sys2Up);
TH1F background_2down("bkg_CR_ISRDown","",nbins,xbins);
background_2down.SetBinContent(1,CRbin1.getVal()*1.15);
background_2down.SetBinContent(2,CRbin2.getVal()*1.1);
background_2down.SetBinContent(3,CRbin3.getVal()*1.05);
background_2down.SetBinContent(4,CRbin4.getVal()*1.01);
RooDataHist bkg_CRhist_sys2Down("bkg_CR_ISRDown","Bkg sys 2down",vars,&background_2down);
wspace.import(bkg_CRhist_sys2Down);
// import the pdfs
wspace.import(p_bkg);
wspace.import(p_bkg_norm,RooFit::RecycleConflictNodes());
wspace.import(p_CRbkg);
wspace.import(p_CRbkg_norm,RooFit::RecycleConflictNodes());
fOut>cd();
wspace.Write();
// Clean up
fOut>Close();
fOut>Delete();
}
We will now discuss what the script is doing. First, the observable for the search is the missing energy, so we create a parameter to represent this observable.
RooRealVar met("met","E_{T}^{miss}",xmin,xmax);
The following lines create a freely floating parameter for each of our bins (in this example, there are only 4 bins, defined for our observable met
).
RooRealVar bin1("bkg_SR_bin1","Background yield in signal region, bin 1",100,0,500);
RooRealVar bin2("bkg_SR_bin2","Background yield in signal region, bin 2",50,0,500);
RooRealVar bin3("bkg_SR_bin3","Background yield in signal region, bin 3",25,0,500);
RooRealVar bin4("bkg_SR_bin4","Background yield in signal region, bin 4",10,0,500);
RooArgList bkg_SR_bins;
bkg_SR_bins.add(bin1);
bkg_SR_bins.add(bin2);
bkg_SR_bins.add(bin3);
bkg_SR_bins.add(bin4);
They are put into a list so that we can create a RooParametricHist
and its normalisation from that list
RooParametricHist p_bkg("bkg_SR", "Background PDF in signal region",met,bkg_SR_bins,data_th1);
RooAddition p_bkg_norm("bkg_SR_norm","Total Number of events from background in signal region",bkg_SR_bins);
For the control region, the background process will be dependent on the yields of the background in the signal region using a transfer factor. The transfer factor TF
must account for acceptance/efficiency/etc differences between the signal region and the control regions.
In this example we will assume the control region is populated by the same process decaying to a different final state with twice as large branching fraction as the one in the signal region.
We could imagine that the transfer factor could be associated with some uncertainty  for example a 1% uncertainty due to efficiency and a 2% uncertainty due to acceptance differences. We need to make nuisance parameters ourselves to model this, and give them a nominal value of 0.
RooRealVar efficiency("efficiency", "efficiency nuisance parameter",0);
RooRealVar acceptance("acceptance", "acceptance nuisance parameter",0);
We need to make the transfer factor a function of these parameters, since variations in these uncertainties will lead to variations of the transfer factor. Here we have assumed Lognormal effects (i.e the same as putting lnN in the CR datacard), but we could use any function which could be used to parameterize the effect  for example if the systematic uncertainty is due to some alternate template, we could use polynomials.
RooFormulaVar TF("TF","Trasnfer factor","2*TMath::Power(1.01,@0)*TMath::Power(1.02,@1)",RooArgList(efficiency,acceptance) );
Then, we need to make each bin of the background in the control region a function of the background in the signal region and the transfer factor  i.e $N{CR} = N{SR} \times TF $.
RooFormulaVar CRbin1("bkg_CR_bin1","Background yield in control region, bin 1","@0*@1",RooArgList(TF,bin1));
RooFormulaVar CRbin2("bkg_CR_bin2","Background yield in control region, bin 2","@0*@1",RooArgList(TF,bin2));
RooFormulaVar CRbin3("bkg_CR_bin3","Background yield in control region, bin 3","@0*@1",RooArgList(TF,bin3));
RooFormulaVar CRbin4("bkg_CR_bin4","Background yield in control region, bin 4","@0*@1",RooArgList(TF,bin4));
As before, we also need to create the RooParametricHist
for this process in the control region but this time the bin yields will be the RooFormulaVars
we just created instead of freely floating parameters.
RooArgList bkg_CR_bins;
bkg_CR_bins.add(CRbin1);
bkg_CR_bins.add(CRbin2);
bkg_CR_bins.add(CRbin3);
bkg_CR_bins.add(CRbin4);
RooParametricHist p_CRbkg("bkg_CR", "Background PDF in control region",met,bkg_CR_bins,data_th1);
RooAddition p_CRbkg_norm("bkg_CR_norm","Total Number of events from background in control region",bkg_CR_bins);
Finally, we can also create alternative shape variations (Up/Down) that can be fed to Combine as we do with TH1
or RooDataHist
type workspaces. These need
to be of type RooDataHist
. The example below is for a Jet Energy Scale type shape uncertainty.
TH1F background_up("tbkg_CR_JESUp","",nbins,xbins);
background_up.SetBinContent(1,CRbin1.getVal()*1.01);
background_up.SetBinContent(2,CRbin2.getVal()*1.02);
background_up.SetBinContent(3,CRbin3.getVal()*1.03);
background_up.SetBinContent(4,CRbin4.getVal()*1.04);
RooDataHist bkg_CRhist_sysUp("bkg_CR_JESUp","Bkg sys up",vars,&background_up);
wspace.import(bkg_CRhist_sysUp);
TH1F background_down("bkg_CR_JESDown","",nbins,xbins);
background_down.SetBinContent(1,CRbin1.getVal()*0.90);
background_down.SetBinContent(2,CRbin2.getVal()*0.98);
background_down.SetBinContent(3,CRbin3.getVal()*0.97);
background_down.SetBinContent(4,CRbin4.getVal()*0.96);
RooDataHist bkg_CRhist_sysDown("bkg_CR_JESDown","Bkg sys down",vars,&background_down);
wspace.import(bkg_CRhist_sysDown);
Below are datacards (for signal and control regions) which can be used in conjunction with the workspace built above. In order to "use" the control region, simply combine the two cards as usual using combineCards.py
.
Show Signal Region Datacard
Signal Region Datacard  signal category
imax _ number of bins
jmax _ number of processes minus 1
kmax \* number of nuisance parameters

shapes data_obs signal param_ws.root wspace:data_obs_SR
shapes background signal param_ws.root wspace:bkg_SR # the background model pdf which is freely floating, note other backgrounds can be added as usual
shapes signal signal param_ws.root wspace:signal

bin signal
observation 1

# background rate must be taken from \_norm param x 1
bin signal signal
process background signal
process 1 0
rate 1 1

# Normal uncertainties in the signal region
## lumi_8TeV lnN  1.026
# free floating parameters, we do not need to declare them, but its a good idea to
bkg_SR_bin1 flatParam
bkg_SR_bin2 flatParam
bkg_SR_bin3 flatParam
bkg_SR_bin4 flatParam
Show Control Region Datacard
Control Region Datacard  control category
imax _ number of bins
jmax _ number of processes minus 1
kmax \* number of nuisance parameters

shapes data*obs control param_ws.root wspace:data_obs_CR
shapes background control param_ws.root wspace:bkg_CR wspace:bkg_CR*$SYSTEMATIC # the background model pdf which is dependant on that in the SR, note other backgrounds can be added as usual

bin control
observation 1

# background rate must be taken from \_norm param x 1
bin control
process background
process 1
rate 1

JES shape 1
ISR shape 1
efficiency param 0 1
acceptance param 0 1
Note that for the control region, our nuisance parameters appear as param
types, so that Combine will correctly constrain them.
If we combine the two cards and fit the result with M MultiDimFit v 3
we can see that the parameters that give the rate of background in each bin of the signal region, along with the nuisance parameters and signal strength, are determined by the fit  i.e we have properly included the constraint from the control region, just as with the 1bin gmN
.
acceptance = 0.00374312 +/ 0.964632 (limited)
bkg_SR_bin1 = 99.9922 +/ 5.92062 (limited)
bkg_SR_bin2 = 49.9951 +/ 4.13535 (limited)
bkg_SR_bin3 = 24.9915 +/ 2.9267 (limited)
bkg_SR_bin4 = 9.96478 +/ 2.1348 (limited)
efficiency = 0.00109195 +/ 0.979334 (limited)
lumi_8TeV = 0.0025911 +/ 0.994458
r = 0.00716347 +/ 12.513 (limited)
The example given here is extremely basic and it should be noted that additional complexity in the transfer factors, as well as additional uncertainties/backgrounds etc in the cards are, as always, supported.
Danger
If trying to implement parametric uncertainties in this setup (eg on transfer factors) that are correlated with other channels and implemented separately, you MUST normalize the uncertainty effect so that the datacard line can read param name X 1
. That is, the uncertainty on this parameter must be 1. Without this, there will be inconsistency with other nuisances of the same name in other channels implemented as shape or lnN.
Lookelsewhere effect for one parameter
In case you see an excess somewhere in your analysis, you can evaluate the lookelsewhere effect (LEE) of that excess. For an explanation of the LEE, take a look at the CMS Statistics Committee Twiki here.
To calculate the lookelsewhere effect for a single parameter (in this case the mass of the resonance), you can follow the instructions below. Note that these instructions assume you have a workspace that is parametric in your resonance mass \(m\), otherwise you need to fit each background toy with separate workspaces. We will assume the local significance for your excess is \(\sigma\).

Generate backgroundonly toys
combine ws.root M GenerateOnly toysFrequentist m 16.5 t 100 saveToys expectSignal=0
. The output will be something likehiggsCombineTest.GenerateOnly.mH16.5.123456.root
. 
For each toy, calculate the significance for a predefined range (e.g \(m\in [10,35]\) GeV) in steps suitable to the resolution (e.g. 1 GeV). For
toy_1
the procedure would be:for i in $(seq 10 35); do combine ws.root M Significance redefineSignalPOI r freezeParameters MH setParameter MH=$i n $i D higgsCombineTest.GenerateOnly.mH16.5.123456.root:toys/toy_1
. Calculate the maximum significance over all of these mass points  call this \(\sigma_{max}\). 
Count how many toys have a maximum significance larger than the local one for your observed excess. This fraction of toys with \(\sigma_{max}>\sigma\) is the global pvalue.
You can find more tutorials on the LEE here